Oligarchy, not democracy: Americans have ‘near-zero’ input on policy – report

Reuters / Amr Abdallah Dalsh

The first-ever scientific study that analyzes whether the US is a democracy, rather than an oligarchy, found the majority of the American public has a “minuscule, near-zero, statistically non-significant impact upon public policy” compared to the wealthy.

The study, due out in the Fall 2014 issue of the academic journal Perspectives on Politics, sets out to answer elusive questions about who really rules in the United States. The researchers measured key variables for 1,779 policy issues within a single statistical model in an unprecedented attempt “to test these contrasting theoretical predictions” – i.e. whether the US sets policy democratically or the process is dominated by economic elites, or some combination of both.

“Despite the seemingly strong empirical support in previous studies for theories of majoritarian democracy, our analyses suggest that majorities of the American public actually have little influence over the policies our government adopts,” the researchers from Princeton University and Northwestern University wrote.

While “Americans do enjoy many features central to democratic governance, such as regular elections, freedom of speech and association,” the authors say the data implicate “the nearly total failure of ‘median voter’ and other Majoritarian Electoral Democracy theories [of America]. When the preferences of economic elites and the stands of organized interest groups are controlled for, the preferences of the average American appear to have only a minuscule, near-zero, statistically non-significant impact upon public policy.”

The authors of “Testing Theories of American Politics: Elites, Interest Groups, and Average Citizens” say that even as their model tilts heavily toward indications that the US is, in fact, run by the most wealthy and powerful, it actually doesn’t go far enough in describing the stranglehold connected elites have on the policymaking process.

“Our measure of the preferences of wealthy or elite Americans – though useful, and the best we could generate for a large set of policy cases – is probably less consistent with the relevant preferences than are our measures of the views of ordinary citizens or the alignments of engaged interest groups,” the researcher said.

“Yet we found substantial estimated effects even when using this imperfect measure. The real-world impact of elites upon public policy may be still greater.”

They add that the “failure of theories of Majoritarian Electoral Democracy is all the more striking because it goes against the likely effects of the limitations of our data. The preferences of ordinary citizens were measured more directly than our other independent variables, yet they are estimated to have the least effect.”

Despite the inexact nature of the data, the authors say with confidence that “the majority does not rule — at least not in the causal sense of actually determining policy outcomes.”

“We believe that if policymaking is dominated by powerful business organizations and a small number of affluent Americans, then America’s claims to being a democratic society are seriously threatened,” they concluded.

http://www.trueskool.com/forum/topics/oligarchy-not-democracy-americans-have-near-zero-input-on-policy-

Whatever Happened to Democracy in America?

 

by ANDREW LEVINE

What is the state of the union?

The empire, though led by bumblers, is still functioning, thanks mainly to a military that continues to hang on, along with the merchants of death it supports.

Thanks to Edward Snowden, we know too that our intelligence agencies are thriving, along with their counterparts in the UK and its former white dominions, Canada, Australia and New Zealand.

With the help of compliant telecommunications giants and internet moguls, the work these denizens of the dark side do has metastasized throughout the body politic – to such an extent that our formerly robust private sphere is now all but gone.

It is remarkable how little indignation this arouses.

On the other hand, the state of our domestic politics is on every good citizen’s mind. Nothing worth doing is getting done. The government has become dysfunctional.

Inasmuch as paralysis at home is so widely bemoaned, and since it is key to the rest, it is well to reflect on the phenomenon and to examine its causes.

How did it come about?

Republicans blame Democrats – Barack Obama, most of all. This explanation is plainly ludicrous. Ideologically, Democrats today are what Republicans used to be. But like the liberals of old, they make a virtue of spinelessness. They call it “pragmatism.”

Indeed, it would be hard to imagine anyone in public life more inclined to compromise away everything he claims to stand for than Barack Obama. The man is pathologically “bipartisan.”

And, on this, his party stands behind him. As Robert Frost said of the more resolute liberals of his day, they won’t take their own side in an argument.

Whom do Democrats blame? That is not an easy question because, unlike Republicans, they are not, and never have been, of one mind.

But there are still alarmingly many of them who think that Obama would actually be a force for good if only national and state politicians were more cooperative and less uncivil. Those Democrats have no doubt where the fault lies: they blame Republicans.

They have an entire cable network, MSNBC, devoted to driving this point home by putting Republican obstinacy, stupidity and mean-spiritedness on display. Rachel Maddow and the others have an inexhaustible supply of examples.

Their take on Republicans is tiresome but unassailable: Republicans have moving the political center rightward and generally debasing our politics for decades.

However the Republican Party is not a force of nature. It only seems that way thanks to the peculiarities of our political culture.

Competition between Republicans and Democrats is its be-all and end-all. These two like-minded electoral operations are joined “dialectically” and, for all practical purposes, inextricably. They are what they are and do what they do in virtue of the ways they interact with each other.

Therefore, to account for the awfulness of our domestic politics, those of us who are not deluded about Obama and the party he leads might just as well blame Democrats.

Indeed, that might be the wiser course since, unlike their rivals, Democrats are, for the most part, somewhat susceptible to reason. Perhaps a few of them could be persuaded to change their ways for the better or at least to mitigate the harm that they do.

If enough of them would, it would make it easier for genuine progressives to break free from the Republican-Democratic dialectic, making everyone who is not wedded to one or the other party better off.

However, as matters now stand, our politics is about seeing to it that one or the other party wins; that is what Republican and Democratic politicians do. How they govern and how they operate when they are in the opposition only makes sense in light of their focus on up-coming electoral contests.

Their “ideological” commitments, such as they are, operate more like electoral props than guiding visions of a better world. There are exceptions, of course, but they are few and far between.

Electoral competition even shapes the American style of political corruption. Republicans and Democrats need money to run their campaigns, and public money is scarce and insufficient. It is therefore no surprise that politicians put themselves up for sale.

But except for a few unusually mercenary specimens, their focus still remains the next election.

In poorer countries, where levels of economic inequality are similar to or worse than our own, political officials typically turn their offices into cash cows. This is rare in the United States, just as it is in most countries with relatively free media and mature political systems.

Our politicians want and need money to buy votes; that comes first. Of course, they also want money for themselves, and they do take their share. But, for the most part, they wait to cash in later — after their stint in “public service” is over.

Politicians seek votes, and to get them, they go where the money is; not where the voters are. This is one reason why public opinion only barely registers in public policy, and why the disinterested deliberations democratic theorists envision almost never actually take place. It is also why no one even speaks about the public interest – except as an accompaniment to electoral posturing.

However the sorry state of the political scene in the United States today is not the fault of America’s duopoly party system alone. To think that would be to mistake an effect for a cause.

To arrive at a deeper understanding of why our domestic politics is as awful as it has become, we have to look beneath the surface – to the structure of the political system itself and to the economic order it superintends.

When we do, it becomes apparent that part of the problem is the U.S. Constitution itself, the justly venerated basic law of the land. The irony is staggering.

On the one hand, our Constitution guarantees our basic rights and liberties; it is what keeps police state tyranny at bay. Without it, all semblance of democracy would probably have vanished long ago; and, on the off chance that anything worth preserving remained, post-9/11Washington would surely have done it in.

But our Constitution also keeps democracy in bounds, enabling economic elites to turn the institutions of representative government into instruments for advancing their own ends.

How can it be so two-sided? The answer lies with its history.

The U.S. Constitution was a compromise reached by the economic elites of the thirteen colonies that, having won independence from Great Britain, became loosely confederated, quasi-independent states.

In the period leading up to its adoption, these states were roughly equal in most relevant respects, including population size; and while there was plainly a need to regulate inter-state commerce and other affairs, and to advance American interests abroad, there was not much for a federal government to do. Politics back then was indeed local.

However there was one monumental exception: slavery.

Opposition to slavery was mounting in all the northern states and also in the European countries involved in the Atlantic slave trade.

The practice was still legal in all the states. But it was economically important only in the planter economies of the South. The abolitionist sentiments emerging in the North were morally driven of course, but economic considerations mattered too.

Southern elites were therefore worried about what their counterparts in the North would do to their “peculiar institution.”

Had a malicious Divinity caused an incarnation of Benjamin Netanyahu to be born into, say, a great Christian family in Virginia in time for him to become a presence at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia in 1787, “existential threat” might have entered the political lexicon some two and a half centuries before it did.

That is precisely what southerners thought northerners were – even before the international slave trade officially ended early in the nineteenth century, forcing some of the great merchants of New England and the Middle Atlantic states to find new sources of income.

The South therefore made “states’ rights” its cause from the outset, and the Constitution they helped negotiate reflected their concern. It did establish a stronger federal government than had existed under the Articles of Confederation, but it also vested considerable power in the states themselves.

This accounts for the system of representative government it established. It was democratic for its time. But, though it did mandate periodic competitive elections, it was not democratic at all by today’s standards or by the more exacting standards of late eighteenth-century Enlightened political theory.

It allowed for the franchise to be severely restricted – at first, just to property-owning free men. It also permitted slavery and even proposed a way for slaves to be counted in determining the size of a state’s Congressional delegation; a slave was to count for 3/5 of a full-fledged (white) person.

It took a Civil War for slavery to be abolished. That advance is registered in the Constitution’s Thirteenth Amendment, enacted and ratified in 1865.

Most restrictions on the franchise are long gone too. Nowadays convicted felons are the only American citizens without a federally guaranteed right to vote; whether they vote or not depends on the state in which they reside.

But the not very democratic system the founders established still bears the mark of its origins.

The Senate is perhaps the clearest case in point.

Before the ratification of the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913, U.S. Senators were selected by state legislatures; now they are elected directly. But each state still gets the same number of Senators – two.

Therefore a voter in California, with a population of more than thirty-eight million people, has the same level of representation in the upper house as a voter in Wyoming, which has little more than half a million. So much for one person, one vote!

And because the shape of Congressional districts within states is left to the states themselves, gerrymandering makes yet more of a mockery of the idea of representative government – especially when the same party controls both the legislature and the Governorship.

Our Constitution was never more than minimally democratic in intent, and it was fashioned to accommodate exigencies that no longer exist or that have become transformed beyond recognition. Therefore one could hardly expect it to accommodate twenty-first century democratic aspirations. It is therefore no surprise that it does not.

Almost anyone who gives the matter a little thought could easily come up with ways to make governance more responsive to the peoples’ will. An obvious way would be to revise the idea of united states – with a view to overcoming the consequences of population disparities and diminishing the power of state governments to determine the party coloration of electoral districts.

We have, in effect, a system of weighted voting, according to which some votes count more than others. Unequal political influence is therefore built into our system of representative government, even before inequalities in income and wealth take their toll.

It would probably not be feasible to address this problem by redrawing state boundaries, though there is no longer any reason why these boundaries should continue to matter in the way they did in the 1780s.

But it plainly would make sense to superimpose a more equitable map of electoral districts over the map of states. It might even make sense to do away with some or all winner-take-all elections, and perhaps with the idea of geographical districting altogether.

Were serious consideration now being given to fundamental institutional arrangements –were Federalist Papers for the twenty-first century being devised – many aspects of our system of representative government would doubtless fail to pass muster.

But no one wants to rewrite the Constitution. The fear is that, if anything like that were attempted, the rights and liberties the Constitution protects would be put in jeopardy. This is a legitimate concern; those rights and liberties are even now hanging by a thread.

However it is not hard to imagine improvements even to the Bill of Rights and to the Reconstruction Amendments instituted after the Civil War. For example, an equal rights amendment, like the one that failed three decades ago, would be welcome. And would we not be better off if the Second Amendment’s “right to bear arms” were indeed “infringed?”

But the prospect of realizing these and other improvements is probably not worth taking on the risks inherent in casting the Constitution off its pedestal, opening up a Pandora’s box of possible changes.

It is therefore, on balance, probably a good thing that more is involved in the widespread reluctance to do so than simple caution.

The way many Americans view their Constitution reflects America’s Protestant origins. The document’s word are treated like inerrant holy Writ. This is silly on its face, and it makes changing the problems the Constitution underwrites more difficult. But it also makes its positive achievements easier to secure.

Easier, but not easy. There is, first of all, the imperial presidency. For most of the last century, the executive branch has been hell bent on usurping much of the authority the Constitution assigns to Congress. The power to lead the country into war is only the most conspicuous example.

And since 9/11, the Bush and Obama administrations have set their sights on diminishing the Constitutional protections established by the First, Fourth and Fifth Amendments. National security has been their excuse; social control is their objective.

The Supreme Court is guilty too; indeed, it has done grave harm to the Constitution it is supposed only to interpret.

Since the 1970s, but with particular vehemence in recent years, right-wing Supreme Court Justices have used the protections the founders accorded free expression through the First Amendment as a basis for expanding the already prodigious ability of corporate “persons” and wealthy meddlers to buy the political outcomes they desire.

This is especially ironic inasmuch as the First Amendment is perhaps the founders’ crowning achievement. How strange therefore that it is now being used to justify channeling money, virtually without limit, into the political process.

Rightwing legal theorists call this “free speech.” The Supreme Court now accords it Constitutional protection.

When the President, backed by his legal advisors’ sophistry, assumes the role of prosecutor, judge and executioner – killing American citizens as well as foreigners without even a semblance of due process — he is ignoring the Constitution. But when the Supreme Court interprets the First Amendment in a way that facilitates political corruption, it is not just ignoring the document’s intent; it is changing its provisions.

Thanks to their machinations, the only way now to stop the insanity they defend is by amending the Constitution itself – deploying language that not even they could misconstrue.

But amending the Constitution has never been easy: it requires a two-thirds majority vote in both the House and the Senate, and ratification by two-thirds of the state legislatures. Efforts to do this are currently underway. But for just the reason why a Constitutional amendment is needed, the hurdles are now especially difficult to overcome.

Capitalism is no friend of democracy either, if only because it contracts the political sphere; where markets rule, democratic collective choice has no place. And, of course, the inequalities in income and wealth that capitalist markets generate are profoundly detrimental to democracy.

But there is no need for these inequalities, awful as they are, to spill over into the political realm to the extent that they do. In principle, popular aspirations can be realized, not entirely but to some extent, without doing away with capitalism itself.

The world is full of capitalist societies that do better than we now do; we used to do better ourselves.

In short, we labor under a political system that suffers from fundamental flaws and that operates against the background of an economic structure that militates against the system’s democratic potential. This makes radical transformation an urgent need.

But unlike in the late eighteenth century, the prospects for building a new, more rational world on the ashes of the old nowadays seem nil. The prevailing situation is not experienced as dire enough; and “we, the people” have become accustomed to letting it be.

Nevertheless our condition is far from hopeless because there is ample space to democratize within the constraints we face. We already have democratic forms; the task is to supply them with content.

Along with most of the rest of the world, but to an extent that is unprecedented in our history, we suffer from a democracy deficit; no matter what happens or fails to happen in the electoral realm, the outcome remains more or less the same.

This – not legislative gridlock or other symptoms of dysfunctionality – is the basic problem with our politics today.

It is only by identifying this problem that we will have any chance of getting beyond it.

For a democracy deficit, the solution is democratization, the more radical the better. This is not an arcane theoretical point; it is perfectly obvious.

But how can we democratize? This would once have been called “the sixty-four dollar question.” Lets call it “the sixty-four trillion dollar question” now. That amount is big enough to impress even the billionaires who are leading us to ruin.

There is no question more urgent, but, astonishingly, it is seldom addressed – even on the left, where the question now just is how to find Democrats less noxious than the usual bunch.

With the 2016 primary season already beginning to focus liberal minds, that question becomes how to block Hillary Clinton or at least how to move her leftward.

Hastening the fall of the House of Clinton, like consigning the ignominious Bush family to oblivion, is a worthy objective. But it will not do much to democratize the regime. Clinton was blocked in 2008; and we all know how that worked out.

Democrats, even Democrats far better than Clinton or Obama, are not the answer; democracy is.

With that thought in mind, I would venture the following suggestion: that since the primaries cannot be avoided – indeed, since even the Democratic Party cannot be avoided — the idea this time around should be to form organizations run democratically from the bottom up.

Let those organizations coalesce around a candidate, but in a way where activists, not the candidate or the candidate’s operatives, call the shots.

The Obama campaigns in 2008 and 2012 were run top-down. The first one especially aroused enthusiasm, but it did nothing to empower those who participated in it. Quite the contrary, it used people as foot soldiers who, when Obama finally showed his colors, realized that they had been duped.

It is remarkable that more people weren’t turned off politics altogether.

The alternative is for the candidate to be accountable to his or her committed supporters; and for them to be calling the shots.

Something like this has worked in social movements in Latin America and other less developed countries. Also, party systems in parliamentary democracies sometimes approximate the idea.

The way forward is therefore not entirely uncharted; and it is fair to say that, even in our system, in some form or other, it is doable. It is a way, among others, to bring as much power to the people as circumstances allow. It is certainly worth trying.

ANDREW LEVINE is a Senior Scholar at the Institute for Policy Studies, the author most recently of THE AMERICAN IDEOLOGY (Routledge) and POLITICAL KEY WORDS (Blackwell) as well as of many other books and articles in political philosophy. His most recent book is In Bad Faith: What’s Wrong With the Opium of the People. He was a Professor (philosophy) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison and a Research Professor (philosophy) at the University of Maryland-College Park.  He is a contributor to Hopeless: Barack Obama and the Politics of Illusion (AK Press).

http://www.counterpunch.org/2014/02/21/whatever-happened-to-democracy-in-america/

Adbusters: Spontaneous Democracy

Adbusters

Meme of the Year.

Simultaneous uprisings are happening right now in the Ukraine, Thailand, Venezuela and Northern Africa … meanwhile dozens of latent protest movements are bubbling away in Turkey, Brazil, Russia, Egypt, Iran, Canada, China and the USA.

We’re living through a revolutionary age. Some of it good. Some of it bad. All of it real.

Just like the world-splitting epochs that were ignited in 1848, 1917, 1968, 1989 and 2011 … today we have entered into an epic battle between the new democratic aesthetic and counter revolutionary fervour. The world is up for grabs like never before.

Faced with global warming, dysfunctional economics and secret corruption across the geopolitical spectrum, people have suddenly found the power to unseat autocrats, depose corrupt presidents, make stock markets plunge by 10% and bring cities and whole nations to a standstill. A new kind of governance is emerging, struggling to be reborn against the greatest of odds. And one thing that we know without a doubt is that people are sick of just voting and then waiting for four years or more for something to happen …

Sudden, spontaneous, bottom up, play jazz democracy is the meme of the year … watch out!

Capitalism and Democracy: Year-End Lessons

Wednesday, 18 December 2013 09:12By Richard D WolffTruthout | News

(Image: <a href=" http://www.flickr.com/photos/42269094@N05/6163857290/in/photolist-aoFo2y " target="_blank"> Jared Rodriguez / t r u t h o u t</a>)

(Image: Jared Rodriguez / t r u t h o u t)

2013 drove home a basic lesson: US capitalism’s economic leaders and their politicians now regularly ignore majority opinions and preferences. For example, polls showed overwhelming popular support for higher taxes on the rich with lower taxes on the rest of us and for reversing the nation’s deepening economic inequalities. Yet Republicans and Democrats, including President Obama, raised payroll taxes sharply on January 1, 2013. Those taxes are regressive; they take a smaller percentage of your income the higher your income is above $113,700 per year. Raising the payroll tax increased economic inequality across 2013.

For another example, many American cities and towns want to use eminent domain laws to help residents keep their homes and avoid foreclosure. Eminent domain is a hallmark democratic right as well as US law. It enables municipal governments to buy individual properties (at market prices) when doing so benefits the community as a whole. Using eminent domain, local leaders want to compel lenders (e.g., banks, etc.) to sell them homes whose market prices have fallen below the mortgage debts of their occupants. They would then resell those homes at their market prices to their occupants. With their mortgages thus reduced to their homes’ actual prices, occupants could stay in them. They still suffer their homes’ fallen values but avoid homelessness. Communities benefit because decreased homelessness reduces the fall of other property values, reduces the number of abandoned homes (and thus risks of fire, crime, etc.), reduces the number of customers lost to local stores, sustains property tax flows to local governments and so on.

Used this way, eminent domain forces lenders – chiefly banks – to share more of the pains produced by capitalism’s crisis. Most Americans support that, believing it will help reverse income and wealth inequalities and also that banks bear major responsibility for the economic crisis.

Yet the country’s biggest banks are using “their” money and laws (that they often wrote) to block municipalities’ use of eminent domain. “Their” money includes the massive bailouts Washington provided to them since 2007. Big bank directors and major shareholders – a tiny minority – fund the politicians, parties and think-tanks that oppose municipalities’ use of eminent domain. In these ways, capitalism systematically undermines democratic decision-making about economic affairs.

For yet another example, the recent bankruptcy court decision about Detroit allows the city to cut retired city workers’ pensions. Those workers bargained and signed contracts with Detroit’s leaders over many years. They accepted less in wages and benefits in exchange for their pensions as parts of their agreed compensation for work performed. Now that an economic crisis and the unemployment it generated have cut Detroit’s tax revenues, this system’s “solution” includes cutting retired workers’ pensions. Other cities are expected to adopt this solution. Inequality worsens as the costs of this economic crisis shift from lenders to cities (usually rich) to retired city-worker pensioners (never rich).

In these and other ways, 2013 taught millions of Americans that capitalism repeatedly contradicts the democratic idea that majority decisions should govern society as a whole. The system’s tendency toward deepening inequalities of income and wealth operated across 2013 in direct contradiction to the will of substantial American majorities.

The same happened in the decades before the 1930s Great Depression. However, in that Depression, a mass movement from below (organized by the Congress of Industrial Organizations – CIO – and socialist and communist parties) successfully reversed capitalism’s tendencies toward inequality. Supported by majorities of Americans, it was strong enough to obtain Social Security, unemployment compensation and millions of federal jobs for the people whom private capitalists could not or would not employ. Those programs helped average people rather than bailing out banks and other large corporations. That movement also got the government to pay for those programs by taxing corporations and the rich at far higher rates than exist now. Capitalism’s deepening inequality was partly reversed by and because of a massive democratic movement.

However, that movement stopped short of ending capitalism. Thus it only temporarily reversed capitalism’s tendencies toward inequality. After World War II, business, the rich and conservatives mobilized a return to “capitalism as usual.” They organized a massive government repression of the coalition (CIO, socialists and communists) that led the 1930s movement from below. By such means as the Taft-Hartley Act and McCarthyism, capitalism resumed its development of ever-greater economic inequalities, especially after 1970. In the Great Recession since 2007, the absence of a sustained movement from below has allowed inequality to worsen as our examples above illustrate.

The lessons of recent history include this: To secure democratic decision-making and the kind of society most Americans want requires moving beyond capitalism. Capitalism’s difficulties (including its crises and inequalities) and its control of government responses to those difficulties keep teaching that lesson. The widening gap between democratic needs and impulses and the imperatives of capitalism is becoming clear to millions in the United States but also in other countries.

For example, the Rajoy government in Spain recently imposed new levels of repression on the strengthening protests against its austerity policies. Spain’s unemployment rate today exceeds the US rate in the worst year of the Depression. Rajoy wants fines of up to $40,000 for offenses such as burning the national flag, insulting the state or causing serious disturbances outside Parliament. Indeed some fines go up to $800,000 for “demonstrations that interfere in electoral processes.”

Contradictions between democratic rights and demands and the processes of capitalism are accelerating into clashes in legislatures and the streets. Informed by history’s lessons about capitalism and democracy, today’s movements more likely will recognize the need to confront and supersede capitalism to secure real democracies. Policies that achieve only temporary reversals of capitalist inequalities no longer suffice. The system’s imperatives to profit, compete and grow are now so costly to so many that its critics and opponents are multiplying fast. Once they confront and solve the problem of politically organizing themselves, social change will happen fast, too.

Copyright, Truthout. May not be reprinted without permission.

Richard D. Wolff is Professor of Economics Emeritus, University of Massachusetts, Amherst where he taught economics from 1973 to 2008. He is currently a Visiting Professor in the Graduate Program in International Affairs of the New School University, New York City. He also teaches classes regularly at the Brecht Forum in Manhattan. Earlier he taught economics at Yale University (1967-1969) and at the City College of the City University of New York (1969-1973). In 1994, he was a Visiting Professor of Economics at the University of Paris (France), I (Sorbonne). His work is available at rdwolff.com and at democracyatwork.info.

Occupied London issue #5: ‘Disorder of the Day’

by ROAR Collective on October 19, 2013

Post image for Occupied London issue #5: ‘Disorder of the Day’

As the frames of revolt reach a dazzling speed, this last issue of the anarchist journal takes a step back to reflect on the uprisings of recent years.

Editorial by the Occupied London collective:

This is the last issue of Occupied London, a journal that started in the political freeze-frame that was London in the mid 00s. In December 2008, at the continent’s other end, the frames started moving again; as they sped up, new movements, revolts, ripples of transformation appeared. We changed our shape to respond to this unfolding condition. For a few years, we focused on regular blog updates from the streets in Greece; then, taking a few steps back and a deep breath, we put a book together, trying to understand the state of the antagonist movement in Greece with our comrades.

And now? The frames have reached a dazzling speed; the consensus of democracy’s good ol’ times has broken and sheds its glass all over the continent, and beyond: the old world is in crisis, and along with it is its previously imposed global consensus on what counts as “progress”, “democracy” or “development”. Are these the creaks and sighs of a new global order settling, are they the early days of global economic fascism, or, could they be the cracks and moaning of its collapse?

The change in everything that we live through is dramatic — and the only way to respond to this new landscape is by changing the format through which we act, communicate, the way we do and spread our politics. If there is a lesson that we should have learned by now in this prolonged moment of crisis, it is that political action that isn’t versatile is doomed to be paralysed in a radical milieu that becomes rapidly outpaced, superseded by the anger of peoples the world over. What has it ever meant to be underground or radical? Whatever the answer, it had already mattered less and less so in, say, struggles over gender, race, or sexuality — now, with revolts becoming the (dis)order of the day, old identifications become obsolete in street politics, too.

And so, this issue is an end and a beginning. It is the end of Occupied London as it existed so far: as irregular journal issues and as a single blog. From now on, we want to be able to respond faster and more acutely to what is playing out around us. Over the coming months, we will be working on both an expanded version of our “From the Greek Streets” blog and on a web platform that will allow for in-depth analysis of our time of global revolt. And then, on much more… We will not reveal much more about the full future format of Occupied London; suffice to say, we will continue updating the blog while we work on the shape of things to come.

Around four years since our last print issue, we have decided to end this phase of the Occupied London project with one final tribute to our journal format. This, our last issue, features reflections from many recent sites of mass revolts from the past few years: it is reminiscent and eagerly awaiting the times to come…

Download a PDF version of Occupied London #5 here.

TABLE OF CONTENTS:

EDITORIAL
Occupied London

CRISIS, CITY AND DEMOCRACY
Ali B.

REPRESSIVE MEMORIES
Dawn Paley

A MOVEMENT OF ANTAGONISM IN THE CITY
Alessio Lunghi

HEROES OF THE STREET
Tucker Landesman

ONE MESSAGE LEADS TO ANOTHER
John Berger

ONE REVOLT LEADS TO ANOTHER
Occupied London

ON CONTOURS OF URBAN REVOLTS IN MARIBOR
Gal Kirn

STRATEGIC EMBELLISHMENT AND CIVIL WAR
Andy Merrifield

HELLO DR. STRANGELOVE
Dimitris Dalakoglou

MOMENTS OF CRISIS
Jacken Waters

STATEMENT ON THE ‘DISMANTLING’ OF GOLDEN DAWN
Occupied London

Illustrations kindly provided by the legendary Leandros from Greece and the incredible Painsugar Designworks from Indonesia.

Fonts: AmazingBasic, Straw Hat, old style smallcaps and Chapparal pro.

This journal exists because of Dawn, Andy, Gal, Alessio, Painsugar, Anna, Leandros, John, Dimitris, Hara, Ali, Tucker, Magpie, Jacken, Antonis, Smokey, Elena, Idris, Jaya, Matt, Ross and Krümel.

At the editors’ seat:
Antonis, Jaya and Dimitris.

At the designer’s seat:
Jaya.

The crew can be reached at: editorial@occupiedlondon.org